types of compulsory or voluntary national service, can likewise be directed toward reducing fertility, as well as toward other objectives.
Population policies should be understandable and widely acceptable to the people. They should help children and the poor and deprived, not place burdens on them. This approach in reducing fertility is particularly relevant for policies involving tax and welfare incentives and disincentives. The alleviation of poverty and greater welfare both for children and adults is the ultimate objective and should be clearly perceived as such by the people.
RECOMMENDATION Six: POPULATION-RESPONSIVE POLICIES
We urge that policies designed to deal with the effects of population change be established by government departments concerned with education, health, agriculture, urbanization, transportation, labor, housing, welfare, finance, and defense.
Economists and planners who advise these agencies can enhance their effectiveness greatly by seeking greater knowledge and understanding of the ways in which population changes affect their areas of concern and by developing the demographic and economic data and analytical tools needed for this purpose.
The changing effects of age and sex distribution patterns and shifts in population density make population-responsive policies ever vulnerable to short- and long-term demographic changes, many of which can be anticipated by close examination of trends. Policymakers and planners must be alert to these changes as they affect current legislation and administrative practice and as they set the stage for the future.
RECOMMENDATION SEVEN: POPULATION POLICY IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
We recommend that developed countries expand their multilateral and bilateral technical assistance to developing countries by providing material, technical, and human resources to help carry out policies and programs aimed at lowering mortality and fertility, improving the conditions of urbanization, and solving other population problems.
It is vital to recognize, however, that population programs and support for fertility limitation cannot be regarded as a substitute for long-term assistance designed to raise people's standards of health, education, consumption, and welfare. A rapid decline in fertility may not be possible without rising levels of education and communication.
Technical assistance can often be effectively provided directly by a developed country to a developing one or by one developing country to another.
The developed countries cannot fail to recognize the long-term nature of many aspects of population problems and their profound relationship to